The words or expressions that are used to join two ideas or two parts of a sentence or two different sentences or a number of sentences in a paragraph thematically and meaningfully are called COHESIVE DEVICES. They are otherwise known as connectives or linking words.
Cohesive Devices are generally used to convey the ideas of :–
1. Addition – And, also, besides, moreover, in addition, In addition to.
2. Contrast – Despite, But, However, Yet, Still, Though.
3. Choice – Or, Either …… or, Neither …… nor.
4. Purpose – So that.
5. Result/effect – Consequently, So, Therefore, Thus.
6. Cause/Reason/Consequence – Because, as, since, for.
7. Time – After, Then, When, before, at last, finally, till, at first.
8. Similarity – Similarly, Likewise
9. Exemplification – For example, for instance, such as, particularly.
10. Clarification – In other words.
Fill in the blanks choosing the linking words given below the passage :
My friend is a singer. He is intelligent –––––––– hardworking. –––––––– he is creative. ––––––––– he has never received any award in India, –––––––– he won a prize in a competition in America last year. –––––––– he has decided to leave India and settle down in America.
(although, therefore, moreover, but, and)
Answer: My friend is a singer. He is intelligent ––and–– hardworking. ––Moreover–– he is creative. ––Although–– he has never received any award in India, ––but–– he won a prize in a competition in America last year. ––Therefore–– he has decided to leave India and settle down in America.
Questions for Practice
Rewrite the following passages filling in the blank spaces with suitable linking words from the lists given at the end of each passage.
1. One of the most wonderful inventions of modern times is television. It is now possible to sit in the comfort of one’s home –––––– watch on a screen events –––––––– are happening hundreds of miles away. We can –––––– get entertainment from films, dances, plays and sports –––––– are shown on the screen. It is difficult to imagine ––––– life would be like without television.
[What, and, also, that, which]
2. The methods of reading usually differ in accordance with the contents of books, –––––all books should be read with equal seriousness. Amusement is not the main objective of reading –––––– a good book, ––––– it is a novel or a biography or a drama, always deals with some aspect of knowledge –––– helps us to know life better. It is ––––– said –––– books are the best teachers.
[Therefore, because, but, whether, and, that]
3. –––– the Congress and the PDP inch towards formation of a new government in Jammu and Kashmir, one lone Kashmiri sits in Tihar jail, accused for crimes ––– he could be hanged for, –––– proved guitly. The case of Abdul Gilani, –––– was a lecturer in a Delhi College, is an example of –––– shocking such incidents could be for ordinary citizens.
[How, While, If, Who, That]
4. Many tribal women are unable to feed their children –––– they have no land to till. –––hundreds of women are facing similar situations. –––––– the land records do not have the names of wives, the husbands sell the land –––– use a large part of the money to buy liquior. ––––– they are not judicious in spending money.
[And, In fact, As, Since, Moreover]
5. I am called the Safety Equipment Officer. It may sound like an impressive title,––––– it’s not a very accurate description of what I do. My main job is to provide protective clothing, –––– overalls, helmets and so on. I estimate what the different departments will need and –––– I order it from the suppliers. –––– I make sure that the various departments have everything they want. ––––– stationary is also my responsibility.
[However, But, Such as, Then, In this way]
6. The climate of Gopalpur-on-Sea is pleasant in summer. –––– tourists in large number throng this small town in summer for holidaying. ––––– suitable accommodation is a problem here, ––––– the town is small –––– most of the people are economically backward. –––– that does not discourage tourists.
[Since, However, But, Therefore, And]
7. When we are young, we are naturally creative ––– we let our minds run free. ––––– as we are taught to follow rules, our thinking narrows. –––––– in many areas of our lives, creativity can be a matter of survival. –––––, with more and more women opting for careers and independence, couples have to be more creative about their relationships to avoid conflicts. Creativity is not all that mysterious. An important creative trait was well defined by a scientist ––––he said, “Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.”
[For instance, and, when, however, but]
8. ––––– the year 2010, one third of the world’s cropland will have turned to dust. One million species will have become extinct and hundreds of millions of people will face starvation. All this is happening –––– our civilization has kept on expanding on the assumption that the world’s resources are limitless. ––––– merely stopping growth is not the answer. ––––– we need is development ––––– works in partnership with the environment.
[That, by, however, what, because]
9. Many people will come to the meeting –––– the speaker is well-known. ––––– we need a bigger hall ––––– at least two hundred persons can be seated. We wanted to book the Lenin Bhavan, –––– it is already booked for that day. –––– we are trying to reserve the town hall –––– it does not have an air-conditioner.
[Though, therefore, but, because, however, so that]
10. When I reached the bus stand, I discovered I had missed my usual bus –––– I reached the office on time ––– a friend was kind enough to give me a lift on his scooter. –––– I reached office, I heard a noise ––––– came from inside my boss’s room. I went inside the room –––– found that a burglar had broken open the almirah ––––– many important documents were kept.
[Because, when, and, where, but, which]
11. We ––––– live in the present-day world are proud to call ourselves civilised –––– we live and dress better than our forefathers. Of course we have the advantages of the inventions of science ––––––– our ancestors had never known. ––––– science has also added to our worries. Perhaps now we can kill more easily ––––– swiftly than ever before.
[But, because, who, which, and]
12. My memory of the first day in college reminds me of the excitement and fear –––– I experienced at that time. I was excited ––––– I heard always about the fun that the students have in college –––––. I was scared and nervous ––––– I had no friends. ––––––, the over-all feeling was one of pleasant expectation.
[And, because, that, however, become]
13. I did not find the book on my table –––––– someone took it. ––––– I went to the teacher to complain, he told me –––––– hence forward, I should be careful. ––––– I keep the book inside the bag, it is always possible to be stolen, –––––– some boys are always tempted to steal books.
[Because, when, unless, since, that]
14. Smoking is harmful to health. This warning is printed on every pack. –––––––people smoke tobacco and endangers their lives. –––––, smokers also cause discomfort to those who involuntarily inhale smoke –––––– being non-smokers.––––––– smoking has become a concern of public health. ––––– the ban on smoking in public is justified.
[Thus, Yet, Therefore, Despite, Moreover, Until]
15. Sikta’s sister is an air- hostess for a famous international airlines ––––– Sikta wants to become one too. –––––– she is still too young. The minimum age for an air- hostess is twenty, –––––– Sikta is just over sixteen. –––––– she has taken up a job in an office –––– she –––––– attends evening classes –––––– she wants to improve her French and Japaneese, ––––––– foreign languages are an essential qualification for an air- hostess.
[Since, also, because, and, but, however, meanwhile, and]
16. Smoking, –––––– may be pleasure for some people, is a source of discomfort for their fellows. ––––, medical authorities express their concern about the effect of smoking on the health of –––– those who smoke, –––– those who must involuntarily inhale the contribution of smokers to the atmosphere. ––––– smoking should be banned in public places.
[But also, Further, Therefore, Not only, Which]
17. When John Logie Baird turned into an adult, he became a businessman. –––– his business failed, –––– he thought of working at television. His family advised him not to be too adventurous. He, ––––, did not listen to them. ––––– he rented a room and bought the apparatus he needed. He started working. One day he saw a picture on his screen. He rushed out and found an office boy whom he took to his room to television. His picture appeared on the screen. ––––– television had been invented.
[However, thus, instead, but, so]
18. The thief disguished himself ––––– nobody should recognise him. –––– he was identified soon enough. –––––– he held a gun in his hand, some people tried to catch him, ––––most other people were looking on with fear. The thief was –––– nabbed by the people ––– he was so scared that he forgot to use the gun.
[However, because, but, so that, although, though]
19. ––––– you work hard, you will not succeed in any competitive examination. –––– thousands of young people appear in these examinations, ––––– a few succeed—–these examinations aim at finding out –––– you are intelligent enough to solve the difficult problems ––––– you face in real life.
[Which, if, unless, although, because, only]
20. As soon as the examination was over, my friends –––– I decided to go on holidaying –– we could not decide the exact place –––– we would spend our holidays. –––– some of us wanted to go to Puri, others proposed Rourkela. It was of course felt –––– the trip should not be very expensive.
[And, where, that, but, while]
21. Each nation has its own peculiar character –––– distinguishes it from others. –––– the people of the world have more points in which they are all like each other than points in which they are different. One type of person –––– is common in every country is the one who always tries to do as little as possibly can and to get as much in return as he can. His opposite, the man who is in the habit of doing more than is strictly necessary ––– who is ready to accept –––– is offered in return, is rare everywhere.
[And, but, that, who, which]
22. Everything seems to be in its place. The match-box, –––, has its fixed receptacle above the mantlepiece, and there is a bowl for the burnt matches, regularly used, ––– its contents show. ––– here is a burnt match thrown on the floor, ––– the bowl is on the table quite handy. ––– the match, you notice, is not of the same kind as those in the box over the mantlepiece.
[Yet, although, and, for instance, as]
23. –––– the only time pollution is news is –––– there has been a major disaster ––– an oil spill or a radiation leak from a nuclear power station. It is, ––––, the ordinary pollution of our whole environment –––– is the growing problem. ––– it goes on, all forms of earth including our own, will be in danger.
[If, when, that, usually, however,such as]
24. We need regular exercise to keep ourselves fit. –––––– exercises, we need regular sleep. ––––––– we need regular relaxation ––––––– the duration of sleep varies with age, –––––– it varies with the nature of work we do. Infants sleep for long hours,––––– sleep is necessary for their growth.
[and, but, also, besides, because]
25. Ball tampering ––––– involves roughing up one side of the ball, ––––––– by picking its seam and scuffing its surface with finger nails ––––––– with bottle tops to make it swing more than normal. ––––––––––– spotted, it is considered a low form of gamesmanship. ––––––– unspotted, it is a fine art that every fast bowler is quick to learn.
[if, either, usually, when, or]
26. –––––– a person suffering from leprosy can be completely cured –––––– can then return to his family and friends. This was not always so. ––––––– the dreadful disease reached the islands of Hawaii about a hundred years ago it spread very rapidly, the government tried to stop the disease by sending all the suffers to one island, Molokai.––––––– they were left to live and die together, forgotten and uncured for.
[when, there, and, now, but, at that time]