What is CBD (Cannabinoid) Oil, THC, CB1 and CB2?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a popular, naturally occurring substance used to treat or alleviate the symptoms of many ailments. It is one of the 100-plus chemical compounds called cannabinoids, which are naturally found in marijuana or cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa). The main psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis plants is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and it is known to cause the ‘high’ feeling, which is usually linked to marijuana. CBD, unlike THC, does not contain psychoactive properties, meaning that it does not alter the user’s state of mind, a quality that makes it an appealing remedy for pain, as well as other conditions.

CBD Source

CBD is extracted from the cannabis plants, which are usually classified as either marijuana or hemp, depending on their THC level. Usually CBD oil is made by diluting the CBD extracted from cannabis plant with an oil, such as coconut oil. For many decades, marijuana farmers have been breeding the crop to contain high THC levels. On the other hand, hemp farmers have ensured that the plant remains intact over the years by avoiding any modifications. It is these hemp plants that CBD oil is made from. As a result, the oil has gained momentum in the health arena, with several scientific studies which indicate that it can be used as a remedy for various conditions, including anxiety and chronic pain. Many countries are also embracing CBD oil as a remedy for a number of medical conditions. For instance, CBD oil in Sweden can be used freely, as long as the product is hemp-derived and contains less than 0.2% THC.

How CBD Oil Works?

Like any other cannabinoid, CBD works in the body by attaching to receptors. It is known that the human body has two cannabinoid receptors, which are CB1 and CB2, and it also has the ability to naturally produce certain cannabinoids. While CB1 receptors are scattered throughout the human body, the majority of them are located in the brain. Those found in the brain are responsible for various functions, including memories, appetite, thinking, mood, emotions, pain, movement, and coordination. It is these CB1 receptors that THC attaches.

CB2 receptors are usually found in the body’s immune system, and they are known to affect pain and inflammation. While researchers in the past thought that CBD attaches to these receptors, this was an erroneous finding as later studies were able to prove that the substance in fact neither attaches directly to CB1 nor CB2 receptors. Instead, it tends to command the body to utilize its own cannabinoids.


Several scientific studies have confirmed that CBD oil alleviates chronic pain by interacting with neurotransmitters, reducing inflammation and impacting endocannabinoid receptor process. For instance, several human studies confirm that when CBD is combined with THC, it can effectively treat pain associated with arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Sativex, which is an oral spray with a combination of CBD and THC, is used to treat multiple sclerosis pain, and it is approved in various countries. CBD oil is also known to reduce depression and anxiety, alleviate cancer symptoms, reduce acne, and promote heart health. The oil is also said to contain neuroprotective properties, which help in treating symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease.

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