Alternative energy, it means the energy from the Sun is getting more popular, except it is developing in Europe as much as possible and it is showing its results as we can see and it is promising. And there are new types of solar cells that appear and the efficiency of those solar types are increasing. If you want to ensure the operation of an industrial building or a residential building using solar energy, you must first learn about the differences in equipment and understand which solar panels are suitable for your region, because the climate everywhere is different.
To understand what solar energy is, you need to know that if you want to take the energy from the Sun, you need to use special equipment known as solar panels. They are sometimes also called solar panels. By the principle of work, they are divided into:
- Thermal Collectors
In the first type, photocells, light and infrared rays are immediately converted into electricity. This is possible due to the semiconducting properties of pure silicon and some chemical compounds. When light hits the solar panel cell, a potential difference occurs, thanks to the p-n junction, it creates a current. Individual cells connected in series make it possible to increase the output voltage. Therefore, they are called solar panels – that is, a number of identical elements.
Solar collectors have a heat transfer fluid that absorbs infrared radiation, heats up, expands and circulates in a closed system. They can be served by:
- Mineral Oils
- Salt Solutions
The coolant either heats water for heating and domestic or industrial needs, or turns the blades of turbines that generate electricity.
Varieties of Solar Panels
The industry produces 3 main types of Solar Panels:
In the first two, pure silicon is used with the deposition of alloying materials on the outer and conductive base on the back sides. Thin-film solar cells can be made of amorphous silicon or other semiconductor materials, as well as with additional sputtering and strum-type elements. All types require a transparent outer layer of glass or polymers to protect against moisture and mechanical damage.
Solar batteries are used in everyday life, for industrial production of electricity and as batteries for spacecraft. Therefore, they have different requirements Efficiency, Lifetime, Mass and Price.
The type of solar panels that is appropriate for establishing is in each case selected according to the ratio of these indicators. Also take into Consideration:
Temperature Coefficiency – Dependence of power loss on fluctuations in ambient temperatures;
Production Guarantee – Over time, the capacity decreases, but there is a period when these changes do not exceed 10-15%;
Size – how much area of solar panels you need to have to generate 1 kW of electricity.
Monocrystalline – the most expensive, with the greatest weight, but at the same time they have a high efficiency (up to 25%), the smallest area for the production of 1 kW (up to 8 m2), the longest service life (20 – 25 years) with low power losses from temperature and time.
Thin-film cheap and light, with slightly larger single crystals of the working area, but the warranty period in them does not exceed 3 years and they are very dependent on weather conditions.
Polycrystalline solar panels need areas several times larger than monocrystals and films to produce 1 kW, but in other respects they are not much inferior to monocrystalline solar panels, and ten times better than film ones.
Photovoltaic cells for thin-film solar cells are produced using:
- Amorphous Silicon
- Indium copper Selenide
- Cadmium Telluride
To create p-n junctions, semiconductor materials are doped with phosphorus, gallium or sulfur. Sputtering of molybdenum, zinc, tin or gallium oxides are used as the anode. Metal plates serve as the cathode (current collector).
The use of various types of Solar Panels in everyday Life and Industry
Considering all the factors and requirements, monocrystalline or thin-film solar panels are used to provide electricity to individual households. In industrial solar power plants, it is advisable to install polycrystalline solar panels. Polycrystalline solar panels are also used in space, but the purity of silicon in them reaches 99.999%.
They are produced using a complex multilayer application technology, which allows solar radiation of various frequencies to be converted into electricity. This proves efficiency up to an incredible 40%, which is not yet possible to obtain in terrestrial conditions.
Generating electricity from light using flat solar panels in large power plants and in households is profitable even in temperate latitudes. This has been proven by the experience of Denmark and Germany. And in hot regions of the planet, solar collectors have a greater potential. They are already operating in California (USA), Mexico, Spain, Morocco, Egypt and other southern countries because there are the greatest number of sunny days and the highest average annual temperatures.
So, the pace of development of new types of solar cells gives hope that soon the energy of the sun will become the main source of electricity in many country houses.