Hardware and Software – Introduction to Computer basics

Hardware and Software - Introduction to Computer basics

Today is the Day of Computer. Computer is an advanced electronic device. It consist of 3 units Input, Processing & Output. Data is the base & Logic’s are the life to Computer. A Computer comes with Monitor, CPU (Central Processing Unit), Memory, Harddisk, CD-ROM, Keyboard & Mouse. The additional things like Speaker, USB devices you can attach as you needed. In this session for Computer basics let us introduce Hardware and Software in details.


From the world of Electronics Hardware came into picture. Hardware says the anatomy of a Computer. Starting from SMPS, the full name of SMPS is known as Switch mode Power Supply. It is the section where from Computer get filtered electricity to operate. Basically Computer operates in range of 5 to 12 voltage. The major part of SMPS build with Diod & Capacitors to filter the voltage Supply.

Next to SMPS let us discuss about Motherboard. This is also called main board. It consists of Integrated Chips, Memory & Processor. After Integrated Chips (IC), main board having a segment called RAM. The full name of RAM is Random Access Memory. Its a electronic memory. RAM not storing data physically. Its pure logical. In each shutdown RAM clear its memory completely. The time we operate a program many operations takes place temporarily. Lets talk about MS office. Here in MS Word when we are writing something we are not storing it physically in real-time. Then how and where it get stored and showing us. Here RAM work as the key. I mean when you are working with your document it in random access memory. Finally, after edit when we stored the file it stored in HDD physically.

Processor is the unit to process the things. Logical operations happens here. I mean the time you are doing an arithmetic operation, for an example simple addition. Processor takes care of addition techniques. This consists of gates like NAD, NOR, XNOR etc.

Hardisk is the place where we do store our data physically. Inside harddisk there is a circular metal plate coated with magnetic capable materials. The magnetic surface of each platter is divided into small sub-micrometer-sized magnetic regions, each of which is used to represent a single binary unit of information. The cable connect harddisk to main board is called data cable.

About CD-ROM it one kind of Read Only Memory. In the mid generation of Computer many hardware engineers used CD-ROM to boot their PC to install Operating System. Using CD-ROM you can play movies, songs disks. Also we can keep our Data in CD. The full name of CD is called Compact Disk.

Computer Peripherals

Among input peripherals keyboard is the major. Using keyboard we are inserting data to our Computer. Keyboard contains all the alphabets, numbers & many special characters. Crtl and Shift are two major keys in Keyboard. It works like toggle to typing the Characters. Caps-lock is for Capital letters. When space bar used for space.

Another friendly input device is called mouse. Using this we made computer easy & fun to operate. In the old age we are using serial port mouse. Now a day with advanced technologies we are using USB and Optical mouses.


Software is a application to operate hardware’s. The unit of software is variables. Like a human brain software works to resolve logic’s & Conditional statements. In the world of software Microsoft is well known for his operating system WINDOW. Today we have many Operating Systems like Linux, MAC or Apple but more than 70% of global population prefer & use WINDOW.

To create a software there are many languages. With two type of languages lower level languages are C, C++, Cobra, Unix, Fortan etc. Higher level languages are like MS.NET, C#, Visual Basics, JAVA, Oracle etc. In world of programming these skills are like day today tools. Using these languages software engineers creates various applications.